j W SIP
WTO- C- m .T-iPTOj
great man is
three signs —
generosity in the design,
humanity in the execu-
tion and moderation in
SUCCeSS —B I S MA RCK
Entered it the posteffire at But Aurora. New Tor It, tor transmission ax second-dust matter
Copyright, 1Mb, br Elbert Hubbard, Editor an. j Pubiiaber.
Is Christianity Declining?
HAT Debate was pulled off, without
police interference, exactly as scheduled.
There was enough of the unexpected, so
no one went to sleep, leaving word to be
called when it was over. No favor was asked or
given. The rounds were rapid and exciting.
One thing I discovered, and that was that Dr.
Albertson is a great talker. He is also a good looker.
His manly six feet of height, and two hundred
pounds of chest=tone,with faultless double=breast=
ed Prince Albert, put me to the bad in betting
circles. It was two to one in favor of the Dominie.
But when it came to logic I put the thing all over
him. And I so explained to the Roycrofters, in
conclave assembled, when I got home at Sun=up.
<fl Afterward, I learned that on the same evening
that I was telling the truth to my flock, he was
explaining to his congregation how he had run
the oratorical Steam=Roller over me.
So both sides are smiling. A full report of the
Debate will be found in THE FRA, that Magazine
of Kosmic Kilowatts, for January. Start your sub=
scription to THE FRA with the January issue.
All Loyal Royal Roycrofters — members of
the Immortal Clan — are urgently requested
not to display Roy croft Books in unpro-
tected places. <J It is not fair to your friend
to introduce an unexpected temptation
while he awaits your arrival in the Library.
•I To avoid Temptation, insure that sense
of Ease and Security on your part, and
make possible many Happy Hours for
your Friends, just send them a Roycroft
Book for their very own jfi & & J-
Our Two Dollar Books
make friends of the uninitiated, and con-
stant patrons of our friends. ^ Our little
Books and Things are " Something New
under the Sun" — and We want the whole
World to Know it. <I List of Titles and
Prices furnished on request.
The Roycrofters, East Aurora, N. Y.
By Special Appointment— Bookmakers to. His Most Gracious Highness,
the Prince of Good Taste.
J|oto 'Pout 3t ?
Whar yer goin',
Snortin' an' blowin'
Like all-persessed ?
Say, you jest
An' listen to my yawp,
Just a minit, .
Cause they 's something in it.
You been a-Iambastin'
Folks 'bout tastin' an' wastin'
Stuff they bolt an' gulp an' guzzle
Inter their arliment'ry puzzle,
' Bout swollerin'
An' tellin' 'em ter chew,
An' chew an' chew,
An' CHEW IT,
An' stick to it
Ter beat ther band,
An' show some grit an' sand, ,
— Jest like ol' Hod Fletcher,
But, say Fra — I betcher
Yer did n't stop ter think
Whilst yer waz a-slingin' uv all that there ink
'Bout gittin ev'ry drop uv mastikashun jooce,
That was a-goin' to wear yer teeth out like th' Dooce!
— Arthur Plummer
EAST AURORA, ERIE COUNTY, NEW YORK
I enclose Two Dollars to ,pay for a yearly
subscription to THE FRA Magazine.
N am e .
Check Your Choice. One of these beautiful Roy-
croft books, gratis, with every subscription for
THE FRA MAGAZINE
HEALTH AND WEALTH .... Hubbard
The Broncho Book .... Capt. Jack Cranford
Woman's Work - Alice Hubbard
Battle of Waterloo - Victor Hugo
White Hyacinths - Elbert Hubbard
The Rubaiyat - Omar Khayyam
A William Morris Book - Hubbard and Thomson
Crimes Against Criminals - Robert G. Ingersoll
A Christmas Carol - - - - Charles Dickens
The Ballad of Reading Gaol - - v - Oscar Wilde
Justinian and Theodora - - Elbert and Alice Hubbard
BOUND VOL. LITTLE JOURNEYS - - Hubbard
ARE YOU WITH US?
TO THE HOMETOFi
= • INTO'- 7=1
. ,„ ^ ^ ^
5 g FRIF • ^OiyMT VI szsz
T HAVE always expended to the last shilling my surplus wealth
in promoting this great and good cause of industrial betterment.
The right reverend prelate is greatly deceived when he says that I
have squandered my wealth in profligacy and luxury. I have never
expended a pound in either ; all my habits are habits of temperance
in all things, and I challenge the right reverend prelate and all bis
abettors to prove the contrary, and I will give him and them the
means of following me through every stage and month of my life.
—ROBERT OWEN, in Speech before the House of Lords.
N Germany, the land of philosophy,
when the savants sail into a sea of
doubt, some one cries, "Back to
In America, when professed democ-
racy grows ambitious and evolves
a lust for power, men say, "Back
to Jefferson ! "
In business, when employer forgets
employee and both forget their better
manhood, we say, "Back to Robert
We will not go back to Robert Owen — we will go on to Robert
Owen, for his philosophy is still in the vanguard.
Robert Owen was a business man. His first intent was to
attain a practical success. He produced the article, and sold
it at a profit.
In this operation of taking raw material and manufacturing
it into forms of use and beauty, from the time the seed was
planted in the ground on up to the consumer who purchased
the finished fabric and wove it, Owen believed that all should
profit — all should be made happier by every transaction.
That is to say, Robert Owen believed that a business trans-
action where both sides do not make money is immoral.
There is a legal maxim still cited in the courts, "Caveat
emptor" — let the buyer beware.
For this maxim Robert Owen had no respect. He scorned
the thought of selling a man something the man did not
want ; or of selling an article for anything excepting exactly
what it was, or of exacting a price for it by hook or crook,
beyond its value.
Robert Owen believed in himself, and in his product, and
he believed in the people. He was a democratic optimist.
He had faith in the demos; and the reason was that his
estimate of the people was formed by seeing into his own
heart. He realized that he was a part of the people, and he
knew that he wanted nothing for himself which the world
could not have on the same terms. He looked into the calm
depths of his own heart and saw that he hated tyranny,
pretense, vice, hypocrisy, extravagance and untruth. He
knew in the silence of his own soul that he loved harmony,
health, industry, reciprocity, truth and helpfulness. His
desire was to benefit mankind, and to help himself by
Therefore he concluded that, the source of all life being
the same, he was but a sample of the average man, and
all men would, if not intimidated and repressed, desire
what he desired.
When physically depressed through lack of diversified
exercise, bad air, or wrong conditions, he realized that
his mind was apt to be at war, not only with its best self,
but with any person who chanced to be near. From this
he argued that all departures in society were occasioned
by wrong physical conditions, and in order to get a full
and free expression of the Divine Mind, of which we are
all reflectors or mediums, our bodies must have a right
environment. ^ To get this Right Environment became the
chief business and study of his life.
To think that a man who always considers "the other
fellow" should be a great success in a business way is to
us more or less of a paradox. "Keep your eye on Number
One," we advise the youth intent on success. "Take care
of yourself," say the bucolic Solons when we start on a
little journey. And "Self-preservation is the first law of
life," voice the wise ones.
And yet we know that the man who thinks only of himself,
acquires the distrust of the whole community. He sets in
motion forces that work against him, and has thereby
created a handicap that blocks him at every step.
Robert Owen was one of those quiet, wise men who win
the confidence of men, and thereby siphon to themselves
all good things. That the psychology of success should
have been known to this man in Seventeen Hundred and
Ninety, we might call miraculous, were it not for the fact
that the miraculous is always the natural.
Those were troublous times when Robert Owen entered
trade. The French Revolution was on, and its fires lit up
the intellectual sky of the whole world. The Colonies had
been lost to England ; it was a time of tumult in Threadneedle
Street; the armies of the world were lying on their arms
awaiting orders. And out of this great unrest emerged Robert
Owen, handsome, intelligent, honest, filled with a holy zeal
to help himself by helping humanity.
Robert Owen was born at the village of Newtown, Wales,
in Seventeen Hundred and Seventy-one. After being away
from his native village for many years, he returned, as did
Shakespeare and as have so many successful men, and again
made the place of his boyhood the home of his old age. Owen
died in the house in which he was born. His body was buried
in the same grave where sleeps the dust of his father and
mother. During the eighty-seven years of his life he accom-
plished many things and taught the world lessons which it has
not yet memorized.
In point of time, Robert Owen seems to have been the
world's first Business Man. Private business was to him
a public trust. He was a creator, a builder, an economist,
an educator, a humanitarian. He got his education from
his work, at his work, and strove throughout his long life
to make it possible for others to do the same.
He believed in the Divinity of Business. He anticipated
Emerson by saying, "Commerce consists in making things
for people who need them, and carrying them from where
they are plentiful to where they are wanted."
Every economist should be a humanitarian; and every
humanitarian should be an economist.
Charles Dickens, writing in Eighteen Hundred and Sixty,
puts forth Scrooge, Carker and Bumball as economists.
When Dickens wanted to picture ideal business men, he
gave us the Cherryble brothers — men with soft hearts, giving
pennies to all beggars, shillings to poor widows, and coal
and loaves of bread to families living in rickety tenements.
The Dickens idea of betterment was the priestly plan of dole.
Dickens did not know that indiscriminate alms-giving pau-
perizes humanity, and never did he supply the world a glimpse
of a man like Robert Owen, whose charity was something
more than palliation.
Robert Owen was born in decent poverty, of parents who
knew the simple, beautiful and necessary virtues of industry,
sobriety and economy. Where this son got his hunger for
books and his restless desire for achievement we do not
know. He was a business genius, and from genius of any
kind no hovel is immune.
He was sent to London at the age of ten to learn the
saddler's trade; at twelve he graduated from making wax-
ends, blacking leather and greasing harness and took a
position as salesman in the same business.
From this he was induced to become a salesman for a
haberdasher. He had charm of manner — fluidity, sympathy
and health. At seventeen he asked to be paid a commission
on sales instead of a salary, and on this basis he saved a
hundred pounds in a year.
At eighteen a customer told him of a wonderful invention —
a machine that was run by steam — for spinning cotton into
yarn. Robert was familiar with the old process of making
woolen yarn on a spinning-wheel by hand — his mother did
it and had taught him and his brothers and sisters how.
fl Cotton was just coming in, since the close of "George
Washington's Rebellion." Watt had watched his mother's
teakettle to a purpose. Here were two big things destined
to revolutionize trade — the use of cotton in place of flax
or wool, and steam power instead of human muscle J>
Robert Owen resigned his clerkship and invested all of his
earnings in three mule spinning-machines. Then he bought
cotton on credit.
He learned the business, and the first year made three
Seeing an advertisement in a paper for an experienced
superintendent of a cotton mill, he followed his intuitions,
hunted out the advertiser, a Mr. Drinkwater, and asked
for the place.
Mr. Drinkwater looked at the beardless stripling, smiled
and explained that he wanted a man, not a boy — a man
who could take charge of a mill at Manchester, employing
five hundred hands.
Robert Owen stood his ground.
What would he work for?
Three hundred pounds a year.
Bosh! Boys of nineteen could be had for fifty pounds a
year. IJ "But not boys like me," said Robert Owen.
Then he explained to Mr. Drinkwater his position — that
he had a little mill of his own and had made three hundred
pounds the first year. But he wanted to get into a larger
field with men of capital.
Mr. Drinkwater was interested. Looking up the facts he
found them to be exactly as stated. He hired the youth
at his own price and also bought all of young Mr. Owen's
machinery and stock, raw and made up.
Robert Owen, aged nineteen, went at once to Manchester
and took charge of the mill. His business was to buy and
install new machinery, hire all help, fix wages, buy the
raw material and manufacture and sell the product.
For six weeks he did not give a single order, hire a new man,
nor discharge an old one. He silently studied the situation.
He worked with the men — made friends with them, and
recorded memoranda of his ideas. He was the first one at
the factory in the morning — the last to leave it at night.
After six weeks he began to act.
The first year's profit was twenty per cent on the investment,
against five for the year before.
Drinkwater paid him four hundred pounds instead of three,
and proposed it should be five hundred for the next year.
A contract was drawn up, running for five years, giving
Owen a salary, and also a percentage after sales mounted
above a certain sum.
Robert Owen was now twenty years of age. He was sole
superintendent of the mill. The owner lived at London and
had been up just once — this after Owen had been in his new
position for three months. Drinkwater saw various improve-
ments made in the plant — the place was orderly, tidy,
cleanly and the workers were not complaining, although
Owen was crowding out the work.
Owen was on friendly terms with his people, visiting them
in their homes. He had organized a day school for the smaller
children and a night school for the older ones who worked
in the mills. His friendliness, good cheer and enthusiasm
were contagious. The place was prosperous.
UST here let us take a side trip
in this LITTLE JOURNEY long
enough to inspect the peculiar
conditions of the time.
It was a period of transition— the
old was dying, the new was being
born Both experiences were
There was a rapid displacement of
hand labor. One machine did the
work of ten or more persons. What
were these people who were thrown
out to do? Adjust themselves to the new conditions, you
say. True, but many could not. They starved, grew sick, ate
their hearts out in useless complaining.
Only a few years before, and the spinning of flax and wool
was exclusively a home industry. Every cottage had its
spinning-wheel and loom. There was a garden, a cow, a
pig, poultry and fruits and flowers. The whole household
worked, and the wheel and loom were never idle while it
was light. The family worked in relays.
It was a very happy and prosperous time. Life was simple
and natural. There was constant labor, but it was diversified.
The large flocks of sheep, raised chiefly for wool, made mutton
cheap. Everything was homemade. People made things for
themselves and if they acquired a superior skill they supplied
their neighbors, or exchanged products with them. As the
manufacturing was done in the homes there was no crowding
of population. The factory boarding-house and the tenement
were yet to come.
This was the condition up to Seventeen Hundred and Seventy.
From then until Seventeen Hundred and Ninety was the time
of transition. By Seventeen Hundred and Ninety, mills were
erected wherever there was water power, and the village
artisans were moving to the towns to work in the mills.
*] For the young men and women it was an alluring life.
The old way gave them no time to themselves — there was
the cow to milk, the pigs and poultry to care for, or the
garden making insistent demands. Now they worked at
certain hours for certain wages, and rested. Tenements
took the place of cottages and the "public," with its
smiling barkeep, was always right at the corner.
Hargreaves, Arkwright, Watt and Eli Whitney had worked
a revolution more far-reaching than did Mirabeau, Danton,
Robespierre and Marat.
Here creeps in an item interesting to our friends who revel
in syntax and prosody. Any machine or apparatus for lifting
has been called a "jack" since the days of Shakespeare.
The jack was a bearer of bundles, a lifter, a puller, a worker.
Any coarse bit of mechanism was called a jack, and is yet.
In most factories there are testing jacks, gearing jacks,
lifting jacks. Falstaff tells of a jack-of-all-trades. The jack
was anything strong, patient and serviceable.
When Hargreaves, the Lancashire carpenter, invented his
spinning-machine a village wit called^it a "jenny." The
machine was fine, delicate, subtle and, as spinning was a
woman's business anyway, the new machine was parsed
in the feminine gender.
Soon the new invention took on a heavier and stronger
form, and its persistency suggested to some other merry
villager a new variation and it was called a "mule." The
word stuck, and the mule-spinner is with us wherever
cotton is spun.
The discovery that coal was valuable for fuel followed the
invention of the steam engine.
When things are needed we dig down and find them, or
reach up and secure them. You could not run a steamship,
excepting along a river with well-wooded banks, any more
than you could run an automobile with coal.
The dealing in coal, or "coals" as our English cousins
still use the word, began in Eighteen Hundred and Nineteen.
That was the year the first steamship, the Savannah, crossed
the ocean. She ran from Savannah to London. Her time was
twenty-five days. She burned four hundred and fifty tons of
coal, or about two-thirds of her entire carrying capacity.
Robert Fulton had begun running his steamer "Clermont"
on the Hudson in Eighteen Hundred and Seven, but there
were wooding stations every twenty miles.
It was argued in the House of Commons that no steamship
could ever cross the Atlantic with steam, alone, as a pro-
pelling power. And even as it was being mathematically
proved, the whistle of the Savannah drowned the voice of
But the Savannah also carried sail, and so the doubters
still held the floor. An iron boat with no sails that could
cross the Atlantic in five days, was a miracle that no optimist
had forseen — much less, dared to prophecy.
The new conditions almost threatened to depopulate the
rural districts. Farmers forsook the soil. The uncertainty
of a crop was replaced with the certainty of a given wage.
Children could tend the spinning-jennies as well as men.
There was a demand for child labor. Any poor man with
a big family counted himself rich. Many a man who could
not find a job at a man's wage quit work and was supported
by his wife and children. To rear a family became a
Various mill-owners adopted children or took them under
the apprentice system, agreeing to teach them the trade.
Girls and boys from orphan asylums and workhouses were
secured and held as practical slaves. They were herded in
sheep-sheds where they slept on straw and were fed in
troughs. They were worked in two shifts, night and day,
so the straw was never really cold. They worked twelve
hours, slept eight, and one hour was allowed for meals.
Their clothing was not removed excepting on Saturday.
*J Any alteration in the business life of a people is fraught
with great danger. Recklessness, greed and brutality at
such a time are rife.
Almost all workingmen of forty or over were out of work.
Naturally, employers hired only the young, the active, the
athletic. These made more money than they were used to
making, so they spent it lavishly and foolishly. It was a
prosperous time, yet strangely enough, prosperity brought
starvation to thousands. Family life in many instances was
destroyed and thus were built those long rows of houses,
all alike, with no mark of individuality — no yards, no flowers,
no gardens — that still in places mar the landscape in factory
towns. Pretty girls went to the towns to work in the mills,
and thus lost home ties. Later they drifted to London.
In Seventeen Hundred and Ninety-six, there was formed
the Manchester Board of Health. Its intent was to guard
the interests of factory workers. Its desire was to insure
light, ventilation and sanitary conveniences for the workers.
Beyond this it did not seek to go.
The mill superintendents lifted a howl. They talked about
interference, and depriving the poor people of the right to
labor. They declared it was all a private matter between
themselves and the workers — a matter of contract.
Robert Owen, it seems, was the first factory superintendent
to invite inspection of his plant. He worked with the Board
of Health, not against it. He refused to employ children
under ten years of age, and although there was a tax on
windows, he supplied plenty of light and also fresh air.
So great was the ignorance of the workers, that they
regarded the Factory Laws as an infringement on their
rights. The greed and foolish fears of the mill-owners
prompted them to put out the good old argument that a
man's children were his own, and that for the state to dictate
to him where they should work, when and how, was a species
of tyranny. Work was good for children! Let them run the
It is a curious thing to note that when Senator Albert J.
Beveridge endeavored to have a Federal Bill passed at
Washington, in Nineteen Hundred and Seven, the argu-
ments he had to meet and answer were those which Robert
Owen and Sir Robert Peel were obliged to answer in Seven-
teen Hundred and Ninety-five.
When a man who worked a hundred orphans fourteen
hours a day, boys and girls of from six to twelve, was
accused of cruelty he defended himself by saying, "If I
doesn't work 'em all the time 'cept when they sleep and
eat, they will learn to play, and then never work." This
argument was repeated by many fond parents as conclusive.
<l The stress of the times — having many machines in one
building, all run by one motor power, the necessity of
buying raw material in quantities, the expense of finding
a market — all these combined to force the invention of a
very curious economic expediency. It was called a Joint
Stock Company. From a man and his wife and his children
making things at home, we get two or three men going
into partnership and hiring a few of their neighbors at day
wages J- jit
Then we get the system of "share-holding," with hundreds
or thousands of people as partners in a manufacturing
enterprise which they never visit.
The people who owned shares were the ones who owned
the tools. Very naturally, they wanted and expected divi-
dends for the use of the tools. That was all they wanted —
dividends. The manager of the mill held his position only
through his ability to make the venture bring returns. The
people who owned the shares or the tools, never saw the
people who used the tools. A great gulf lay between them.
For the wrongs and injustice visited upon the workers no
one^person was to blame. The fault was shifted. Everybody
justified himself. And then came the saying, "Corporations
have no souls."
Robert Owen was manager of a mill, yet he saw the misery,
the ignorance and the mental indifference that resulted from
the factory system. He, too, must produce dividends, but
the desire of his heart was also to mitigate the lot of the
Books were written by good men picturing the evils of the
factory system. Comparisons were made between the old
and new in which the hideousness of the new was etched
in biting phrase. Some tried to turn the dial backward and
revive the cottage industries, as did Ruskin a little later.
"A Dream of John Ball" was anticipated and many sighed
for "the good old times."
But among the many philosophers and philanthropists who
wrestled with the problem, Robert Owen seems to have stood
alone in the belief that success lay in going on, and not in
turning back. He set himself to making the new condition
tolerable and prophesied a day when out of the smoke and
din of strife would emerge a condition that would make for
health, happiness and prosperity such as this tired old world
never has seen. Robert Owen was England's first Socialist.
<J Very naturally, he was called a dreamer. Some called
him an infidel, and the enemy of society.
Very many now call him a seer and a prophet.
N Robert Owen's day cotton yarn
was packaged and sold in five-
pound bundles. These packages
were made up in hanks of a
given number of yards jt One
hundred and twenty counts to a
package was fixed upon as " par"
or "standard count." If the thread
was very fine of course more hanks
were required to make up the five
pounds. The price ranged up or
down, below or above the one
hundred and twenty mark. That is, if a package contained
two hundred and forty hanks, its value was just double
what it would have been if merely standard.
Robert Owen knew fabrics before he began to spin. First,
he was a salesman. Second, he made the things he could sell.
^ The one supremely difficult thing in business is sales-
manship. Goods can be manufactured on formula, but it
takes a man to sell. He who can sell is a success— others
may be. ^ The only men who succeed in dictating the policy
of the house are those in the Sales Department; that is,
those who are on the side of income, not of expense.
The man with a "secret process" of manufacture always
imparts his secret, sooner or later, but the salesman does
not impart his secret, because he can't. It is not trans-
ferable. It is a matter of personality. Not only does the
salesman have to know his goods, but he must know the
buyer — he must know humanity.
And humanity was the raw stock in which Robert Owen
dealt. Robert Owen never tried to increase his sales by
decreasing his price. His product was always higher than
standard. "Anybody can cut prices," he said, "but it takes
brains to make a better article." He focused on fineness.
•J And soon buyers were coming to him. A finer article
meant a finer trade. And now, on each package of yarn
that Owen sent out he placed a label that read thus, "This
package was made under the supervision of Robert Owen."
Thus his name gradually became a synonym for quality.
<J Among other curious ideas held by Owen was that to
make finer goods you must have a finer quality of workman.
To produce this finer type of person now became his dream.
<j Mr. Drinkwater smiled at the idea and emphasized
Now Mr. Drinkwater had a son-in-law who looked in on
things once a month, signed his voucher; and went away
fox-hunting. He thought he was helping run the mill.
This man grew jealous of the young manager and suggested
that Drinkwater increase the boy's pay and buy off the
percentage clause in the contract so to keep the youngster
from getting meglacephalia.
Drinkwater asked Owen what he would take for the contract
and Owen handed it to him and said, "Nothing." It gave
him a chance to get out into a larger field. Drinkwater
never thought of the value of that little Robert Owen label.
No wise employer should ever allow a thing like that.
Owen had won both a name and fame among the mer-
chants and he now engaged with several mills, to superintend
their output and sell their goods with his label on each
package. In other words he was a Manufacturer's Broker.
From a five-hundred-pound-a-year man he had grown to
be worth two thousand pounds a year.
No mill owned him. He was free — he was making money.
The dream of human betterment was still in his heart.
1$ On one of his trips to Glasgow to sell goods, he met a
daughter of David Dale, a mill-owner who was in active
competition with him. Dale made a fine yarn, too.
The girl had heard of Owen — they met as enemies — a very
good way to begin an acquaintance. It was Nature's old,
old game of stamen, pistil and pollen, that fertilizes the
world of business, betterment and beauty. They quarreled.
"You are the man who puts your name on the package?"
"And yet you own no mill!"
"True— but— "
"Never mind. You certainly are proud of your name."
" I am — would n't you be?"
"Not of yours."
Then they stared at each other in defiance. To relieve the
tension, Mr. Owen proposed a stroll. They took a walk
through the park and discovered that they both were inter-
ested in Social Reform. David Dale owned the mills at New
Lanark — a most picturesque site. He was trying to carry on
a big business, so as to make money and help the workers.
He was doing neither, because his investment in the plant
had consumed too much of his working capital.
They discussed the issue until eleven forty-five by the clock.
^ The girl knew business and knew society. The latter she
had no use for.
The next day they met again, and quite accidentally found
themselves engaged, neither of 'em knew how.
It was very embarrassing 1 How could they break the news
to Papa Dale?
They devised a way. It was this: Robert Owen was to go
and offer to buy Mr. Dale's mills.
Owen went over to Lanark and called on Mr. Dale, and
told him he wanted to buy his business. Mr. Dale looked at
the boy, and smiled. Owen was twenty-seven, but appeared
twenty, being beardless, slight and fair-haired.
The youth said he could get all the money that was needed.
They sparred for a time — neither side naming figures. It
being about noon time, Mr. Dale asked young Mr. Owen
to go over to his house to lunch. Mr. Dale was a widower,
but his daughter kept the house. Mr. Dale introduced Mr.
Owen to Miss Dale.
The young folks played their parts with a coolness that
would have delighted John Drew, and would have been
suspicious to anybody but a fussy old mill-owner.
Finally as the crumbs were being brushed from the rich
man's table, Mr. Dale fixed on the sum of sixty thousand
pounds for his property.
Owen was satisfied and named as terms three thousand
pounds and interest each year for twenty years, touching
the young lady's toe with his own under the table.
Mr. Dale agreed. Mr. Owen had the money to make the
first payment. The papers were drawn up. The deal was
closed — all but the difficult part. This was done by rushing
the enemy in his library, after a good meal. "It keeps the
business in the family, you see, " said the girl on her knees,
The point was gained and when Robert Owen, a few
weeks later, came to New Lanark to take possession of
the property, he did as much for the girl. So they were
married and lived happily ever afterward.
OBERT OWEN took up his work
at New Lanark with all the en-
thusiasm that hope, youth and
love could bring to bear.
Mr. Dale had carried the flag as
far to the front as he thought
it could be safely carried; that is
to say, as far as he was able to
Owen had his work cut out for
him. The workers were mostly
Lowland Scotch and spoke in an
almost different language from Owen. They looked upon
him with suspicion. The place had been sold and they had
gone with it — how were they to be treated? Were wages
to be lowered and hours extended? Probably.
Pilfering had been reduced to a system, and to get the start
of the soft-hearted owner was considered smart.
Mr. Dale had tried to have a school and to this end had
hired an elderly Irishman, who gave hard lessons and a
taste of the birch to children who had exhausted themselves
in the mills and had no zest for learning. Mr. Dale had
taken on over two hundred pauper children from the work-
houses and these were a sore trial to him.
Owen's first move was to reduce the working hours from
twelve to ten hours. Indeed, he was the first mill-owner
to adopt the ten-hour plan. He improved the sanitary
arrangements, put in shower baths and took a personal
interest in the diet of his little wards, often dining with
A special school building was built at a cost of thirty thousand
dollars. This was both a day and a night school jt It also
took children of one year old and over, in order to relieve
mothers who worked in the mills. "The little mothers,"
often only four or five years old, took care of babies a year
old and younger all day. Owen instructed his teachers
never to scold or punish by inflicting physical pain. His
was the first school in Christendom to abolish the rod.
^ His plan anticipated the Kindergarten and the Creche. He
called mothers' meetings and tried to show the uselessness
of scolding and beating, because to do these things was
really to teach the children to do them. He abolished the
sale of strong drink in New Lanark. Model houses were
erected, gardens planted and prizes given for the raising
In order not to pauperize his people, Owen had them pay
a slight tuition for the care of the children and there was
also a small tax levied to buy flower seeds.
In the school building was a dance hall and an auditorium.
<J At one time the supply of raw cotton was cut off for
four months. During this time Owen paid his people full
wages, insisted that they should all, old and young, go to
school for two hours a day and work also two hours a day
at tree planting, grading and gardening. During this period
of idleness he paid out seven thousand pounds in wages.
This was done to keep the workmen from wandering away.
*J It need not be imagined that Owen did not have other
cares besides those of social betterment jt Much of the
machinery in the mills was worn and becoming obsolete.
To replace this he borrowed a hundred thousand dollars.
Then he reorganized his business as a stock company and
sold shares to several London merchants with whom he
dealt. He interested Jeremy Bentham, the great jurist
and humanitarian, and Bentham proved his faith by buying
stock in the New Lanark Company.
Joseph Lancaster, the Quaker, a mill-owner and philan-
thropist, did the same.
Owen paid a dividend of five per cent on his shares. A
surplus was also set aside to pay dividends in case of a
setback, but beyond this the money was invested in bettering
the environment of his people.
New Lanark had been running fourteen years under Owen's
management. It had attracted the attention of the civilized
world. The Grand Duke Nicholas, afterwards the Czar, spent
a month with Owen studying his methods. The Dukes of
Kent, Sussex, Bedford and Portland; the Archbishop of
Canterbury; the Bishops of London, Peterborough and Car-
lisle; the Marquis of Bluntly; Lords Grosvenor, Carnarvon,
Granville, Westmoreland, Shaftesbury and Manners ; General
Sir Thomas Dyce and General Brown ; Ricardo, De Crespigny,
Wilberf orce, Joseph Butterworth and Sir Francis Baring all
visited New Lanark. Writers, preachers, doctors, in fact almost
every man of intellect and worth in the Kingdom knew of
Robert Owen and his wonderful work at New Lanark. Sir
Robert Peel had been to New Lanark and had gone back
home and issued an official bulletin inviting mill-owners to
study and pattern after the system.
The House of Commons invited Owen to appear and explain
his plan for abolishing poverty from the Kingdom. He was
invited to lecture in many cities. He issued a general call
to all mill-owners in the Kingdom to co-operate with him
in banishing ignorance and poverty.
But to a great degree Owen worked alone and New Lanark
was a curiosity. Most mill towns had long rows of dingy
tenements, all alike, guiltless of paint, with not a flower
bed or tree to mitigate the unloveliness of the scene. Down
there in the dirt and squalor lived the working-folks; while
away up on the hillside, surrounded by a vast park, with
stables, kennels and conservatories, resided the owner.
Owen lived with his people. And the one hundred and fifty
acres that made up the village of New Lanark contained a
happy, healthy and prosperous population of about two
There was neither pauperism nor disease, neither gamblers
nor drunkards. All worked and all went to school.
It was an object lesson of thrift and beauty.
Visitors came from all over Europe — often hundreds a day.
<J Why could not this example be extended indefinitely so that
hundreds of such villages should grow instead of only one ?
There could, and there can and there will be, but the people
must evolve their own ideal environment and not have to
have it supplied for them.
By Owen's strength of purpose he kept the village ideal,
but he failed to evolve an ideal people. All around were
unideal surroundings, and the people came and went.
Strong drink was to be had only a few miles away. To have
an ideal village, it must be located in an ideal country.
Owen called on the clergy to unite with him in bringing
about an ideal material environment. He said that good
water, sewerage and trees and flowers worked a better
spiritual condition. They replied by calling him a materialist.
He admitted that he worked for a material good. His
followers added to his troubles by comparing his work
with that of the clergy round about, where vice, poverty
and strong drink grouped themselves about a steeple upon
which was a cross of gold to which labor was nailed — a
simile to be used later by a great orator, with profit.
Owen was a Unitarian, with a Quaker bias. Any clergyman
was welcome to come to New Lanark — it was a free platform.
A few preachers accepted the invitation, with the intent to
convert Robert Owen to their particular cause. New Lanark
was pointed out all over England as a godless town. The
bishops issued a general address to all rectors and curates
warning them against "any system of morals that does
away with God and His Son, Jesus Christ, fixing its salvation
on flower beds and ragged schools."
New Lanark was making money, because it was producing
goods the world wanted. But its workers were tabu in
respectable society and priestly hands were held aloft in
pretended horror whenever the name of Robert Owen, or
the word "Socialism" was used. Owen refused to employ
child labor and issued a book directing the attention of
society to this deadly traffic in human beings. The parents,
the clergy and the other mill-owners combined against him
and he was denounced by press and pulpit.
He began to look around for a better environment for an
ideal community. His gaze was turned toward America.
OBERT OWEN'S plan for abol-
ishing vice and poverty was simply
to set the people to work under
ideal conditions, and then allow
them time enough for recreation
and mental exercise, so that thrift
might follow farming.
In reply to the argument that the
workman should evolve his own
standard of life, independent of
his employer, Owen said that
the mill with its vast aggregation
of hands was an artificial condition. The invention, ingenuity
and enterprise that evolved the mill were exceptional. The
operators for the most part lacked this constructive genius,
the proof of which lay in the very fact that they were
operators. To take advantage of their limitations, disrupt
their natural and accustomed mode of life and then throw
the blame back upon them for not evolving a new and better
environment, was not reasonable nor right.
The same constructive genius that built the mill and operated
it, should be actively interested in the welfare of the people
who worked in the mill.
To this end there should be an ideal village adjacent to
every great mill. This village should afford at least half
an acre of ground for every family. In the way of economy,
one building should house a thousand people. It should be
built in the form of a parallelogram and contain co-operative
kitchens, dining-rooms, libraries, art galleries and gym-
nasia. It should be, in fact, a great University, not unlike
the great collection of schools at Oxford or Cambridge.
All would be workers — all would be students.
The villages should be under the general supervision of the
government, in order to secure stability and permanency.
If the mill management failed, the government should
continue the business, because even if the government lost
money in the venture, at times, this was better than always
to be building jails, prisons, insane asylums, almshouses and
In sections where there were no mills or factories, the
government would construct both mills and villages, to
the intent that idleness and ignorance might be without
excuse. To this end Owen would ask all landowners, or
holders of estates of a thousand acres or more, to set apart
one-tenth of their land for ideal villages and co-operative
mills to be managed by the government.
As proof that his plans were feasible, Owen pointed to New
Lanark and invited investigation.
Among others who answered the invitation was Henry Hase,
cashier of the Bank of England. Hase reported that New
Lanark had the look of a place that had taken a century
to evolve and, in his mind, the nation could not do better
than to follow the example of Owen. He then added, "If
the clergy, nobility and mill-owners will adopt the general
scientific method proposed by Mr. Owen for the abolition of
poverty, ignorance and crime, it will be the greatest step
of progress ever seen in the history of the world."
In proposing that the clergy, nobility and mill-owners
should unite for the good of mankind, Mr. Hase was not
guilty of subtle humor or ironical suggestion. He was an
honest and sincere man who had been exposed to the con-
tagious enthusiasm of Mr. Owen.
Owen was fifty-seven years of age, practical man that he
was, before he realized that the clergy, the nobility and
the rich mill-owners had already entered into an unconscious
pact to let mankind go to Gehenna — just so long as the
honors, emoluments and dividends were preserved.
That is to say, the solicitation of the Church is not and
never has been for the welfare of the people; it is for the
welfare of the Church for which churchmen fight All
persecution turns on this point.
If stability of the Church is threatened, the churchmen
awake and cry, "To Arms!" In this respect the Church,
the nobility and vested capital have everything in common
— they want perpetuity and security. They seek safety. All
of the big joint stock companies had in their directorates
members of the nobility and the clergy. The bishops held
vast estates — they were Lords.
The Church livings were rooted in the estates of the nobility
and both traced to a common ancestor — greed The Gov-
ernment was a government of the people, by the Church
and nobility, for the Church and nobility.
Robert Owen did not represent either the Church or nobility.
He was a very exceptional and unique product; he was a
workingman who had become a philanthropic capitalist. He
was a lover of humanity, filled with a holy zeal to better the
condition of the laborer.
HE mills at New Lanark were
making money, but the share-
holders in London were not
satisfied with their dividends J>
They considered Owen's plans
for educating the workingman
chimerical. In one respect they
knew that Owen was sane — he
could take the raw stock and
produce the quality of goods
that had a market value. He
had trained up a valuable and
skilled force of foremen and workers. Things were pros-
perous and would be much more so if Owen would only
cease dreaming dreams and devote himself to the com-
mercial end of the game.
If he would not do this, then he must buy their stock or
sell them a controlling interest of his own.
He chose the latter.
In Eighteen Hundred and Twenty-five, when he was fifty-
five years old, he sailed for America. He gave lectures in
New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Washington on his
new order of economics. He was listened to with profound
attention. At Washington he was the guest of the President,
and on invitation addressed a joint session of the Senate
and the House, setting forth his arguments for Socialism.
<} The Moravians at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, had founded
their colony as early as Seventeen Hundred and Twenty.
The Zoarites, the Economites, the Separatists, the Shakers,
and the Rappites had been in existence and maintained
successful communities for a score of years.
Robert Owen visited these various colonies and saw that
they were all prosperous. There was neither sickness, vice,
poverty, drunkenness nor disease to be found among them.
He became more and more convinced that the demands
of an advancing civilization would certainly be co-operative
in nature. Chance might unhorse the individual, but with
a community the element of chance was eliminated. He
laid it down as a maxim, evolved from his study, observation
and experience, that the community that exists for three
years is a success. That no industrial community had ever
endured for three years, save as it was founded on a religious
concept, was a fact that he overlooked. Also, he failed to
see that the second generation of communists did not
coalesce, and as a result that thirty-three years was the
age limit for even a successful community; and that if it
still survived, it was because it was reorganized under a
strong and dominant leadership.
Communists or Socialists are of two classes — those who
wish to give and those who wish to get. When fifty-one
per cent of the people in a community are filled with a
desire to give, Socialism will be a success.
Perhaps the most successful social experiment in America
was the Oneida Community, but next to this was the Har-
monyites, founded by George Rapp J> The Harmonyites
founded Harmony, Indiana, in Eighteen Hundred and
Fourteen. They moved from Pennsylvania and had been
located at their present site for eleven years. They
owned thirty thousand acres of splendid land at the junction
of the Wabash and Ohio Rivers. They had built over a
hundred houses, had barns, stores, a church, a hall, a saw-
mill, a hotel and a woolen factory.
Now when Owen went to Pittsburg, he floated down the
Ohio to Cincinnati and then on to Harmony Jt He was
graciously received and was delighted with all he saw and
heard J> jfi
Owen saw the success of the woolen mill and declared that
to bring cotton up by steamboats from the South, would
be easy. He would found cotton mills and here New Lanark
should bloom again only on an increased scale.
Would the Rappites sell?
Yes, they wanted to move back to Pennsylvania, where
there were other groups of similar faith.
Their place, they figured, was worth two hundred and
fifty thousand dollars. Owen made an offer of one hundred
and fifty thousand dollars, which to his surprise was quietly
accepted. It was a quick deal.
The Rappites moved out, and the Owenites moved in.
Just across the Ohio River they founded the town of
Owensboro jt jt
Then Owen went back to England and sent over about
three hundred of his people, including his own son, Robert
Robert Owen had large interests in England, and New
Harmony on the banks of the Wabash was incidental.
Robert Dale Owen was then twenty-five years old. He was
a philosopher, not an economist, and since the place lacked
a business head, dissensions arose. Let some one else tell
how quickly a community can evaporate when it lacks the
cement of religious oneness:
For the first few] weeks, all entered into the new system
with a will. Service was the order of the day. Men who seldom
or never before labored with their hands, devoted themselves
to agriculture and the mechanical arts with a zeal which
was at least commendable, though not always well directed.
Ministers of the gospel guided the plow and called swine to
their corn instead of sinners to repentance, and let patience
have her perfect work over an unruly yoke of oxen Mer-
chants exchanged the yardstick for the rake or pitchfork;
and all appeared to labor cheerfully for the common weal.
Among the women there was even more apparent self-
sacrifice. Those who had seldom seen the inside of their
ownjritchens went into that of the common eating-house
(formerly a hotel) and made themselves useful among pots
and kettles. Refined young ladies who had been waited upon
all their lives, took turns in waiting upon others at the table.
And several times a week all parties who chose, mingled in
the social dance in the great dining-hall.
But notwithstanding the apparent heartiness and cordiality
of this auspicious opening, it was in the social atmosphere of
the Community that the first cloud arose. Self-love was a
spirit which could not be exorcised. It whispered to the lowly
maidens, whose former position in society had cultivated the
spirit of meekness — "Thou art as good as the formerly rich
and fortunate; insist upon your equality." It reminded the
former favorites of society of their lost superiority, and de-
spite all rules tinctured their words and actions with "airs"
and conceit. S imil ar thoughts and feelings soon arose among
the men; and though not so soon exhibited they were none
the less deep and strong. Suffice it to say, that at the end of
three months — three months ! — the leading minds in the com-
munity were compelled to acknowledge to each other that the
social life of the Community could not be bounded by a single
circle. They therefore acquiesced, though reluctantly, in its
division into many. But they still hoped and many of them
no doubt believed that though social equality was a failure,
community of property was not. Whether the law of mine and
thine is natural or incidental in human character, it soon
began to develope its sway. The industrious, the skilful and
the strong saw the product of their labor enjoyed by the
indolent, the unskilled and the improvident; and self-love
rose against benevolence. A band of musicians thought their
brassy harmony was as necessary to the common happiness
as bread and meat, and declined to enter the harvest-field
or the workshop. A lecturer upon natural science insisted
upon talking while others worked. Mechanics, whose single
day's labor brought two dollars into the common stock, in-
sisted that they should in justice work only half as long as
the agriculturist whose day's work brought but one.
Of course, for a while, these jealousies were concealed,
but soon they began to be expressed. It was useless to remind
all parties that the common labor of all ministered to the
prosperity of the Community. Individual happiness was the
law of nature and it could not be obliterated. And before a
single year had passed, this law had scattered the members
of that society which had come together so earnestly and
under such favorable circumstances and driven them back
into the selfish world from which they came.
The writer of this sketch has since heard the history of
that eventful year reviewed with honesty and earnestness
by the best men and most intelligent parties of that unfor-
tunate social experiment J- They admitted the favorable
circumstances which surrounded its commencement; the
intelligence, devotion and earnestness which were brought
to the cause by its projectors and its final total failure. And
they rested ever after in the belief that man though disposed
to philanthropy, is essentially selfish and a community of
social equality and common property an impossibility.
HE loss of two hundred thousand
dollars did not dampen the ardor
of Robert Owen. He paid up the
debts of New Harmony, had the
property surveyed and subdivided
and then deeded it to his children
and immediate relatives and a few
of the "staunch friends who have
such a lavish and unwise faith in
my wisdom" — to use his own ex-
pression J- &
To give work to the unemployed
of England now became his immediate solicitation. He was
sixty years old when he inaugurated his first co-operative
store, which in fact is the parent of our modern Department
Store jt jt
In this store he proposed to buy any useful article or product
which any man might make or produce, figuring on cost of
the raw material and six pence an hour for labor. This labor
was to be paid for in Labor Script, receivable in payment
for anything the man might want to buy. Here we get the
Labor Exchange jt Owen proposed that the Government
should set delinquent men to work, instead of sending them
to prison. Any man who would work, no matter what he
had done, should be made free. The Government would
then pay the man in Labor Exchange Script. Of course,
if the Government guaranteed the script, it was real money ;
otherwise it was wild-cat money, subject to fluctuation and
depreciation. Very naturally the Government refused to
guarantee this script, or to invest in the co-operative stores.
To make the script valuable, it had to be issued in the form
of a note, redeemable in gold at a certain time.
The stores were started, and many idle men found work in
building mills and starting various industries.
Three years passed and some of the script became due. It
was found to be largely held by saloon-keepers who had
accepted it at half price. Efforts had been constantly made
to hurt Owen's standing and depreciate the market value
of this currency.
The Labor Exchange that had issued the script was a
corporation, and Robert Owen was not individually liable,
but he stepped into the breach and paid every penny out
of his own purse, saying, "No man shall ever say that he
lost money by following my plans."
Next he founded the co-operative village of Harmony or
Queenswood. The same general plan that he had followed
at New Lanark was here carried out, save that he endeavored
to have the mill owned by the workers instead of by outside
capital ,* jt
Through his very able leadership, this new venture continued
for ten years and was indeed a school and a workshop. The
workers had gardens, flowers, books. There were debates,
classes and much intellectual exercise that struck sparks
from heads that were once punk. John Tyndall was one of
the teachers and also a worker in this mill. Let the fact stand
out that Owen discovered Tyndall — a great, divinely human
nautilus — and sent him sailing down the tides of Time.
At eighty years of age, Owen appeared before the House
of Commons and read a paper which he had spent a year
in preparing — "The Abolition of Poverty and Crime." He
held the Government responsible for both, and said that until
the ruling class took up the reform idea and quit their policy
of palliation, society would wander in the wilderness. To
gain the Promised Land we must all move together in a
government "of the people, by the people and for the
people." He was listened to with profound respect and a
vote of thanks was tendered him; but his speech never
reached the public printer.
Robert Dale Owen became a naturalized citizen of the
United States, and for several years was a member of
Congress. And at the time of the death of his father was
our minister to Italy, having been appointed by President
Pierce. ^ At the time he was in England, and announced
the passing of Robert Owen to the family at New Harmony,
Indiana, in the following letter:
November 17th, 1858.
It is all over. Our dear father passed away this morning,
at a quarter before seven, as quietly and gently as if he had
been falling asleep. There was not the least struggle, not
the contraction of a limb or a muscle, not an expression
of pain on his face. His breathing stopped so gradually
that, even fas I held his hand, I could [scarcely tell the
moment when he no longer lived. His last words, distinctly
pronounced about twenty minutes before his death, were:
"Relief has come."
will give his Heart to Heart Talk,
"The March of the Centuries," as follows:
ST. LOUIS, MO— Friday Evening, February 12th. Fine
Arts, " Memorial Hall," Locust and 1 9th St. Seats on
sale at Bollman Bros. Piano Co., 1120 Olive St.
PITTSBURG, PA. — Tuesday Evening, February 23rd.
Carnegie Hall, (North Side). Seats on sale at Boggs
& Buhl's Book Department one week in advance.
BOSTON, MASS.— Thursday Evening, March 4th. Chick-
ering Hall, Huntington Ave. Seats on sale at Box
PHILADELPHIA, PA.— Friday Evening, March the 19th.
Witherspoon Hall, Walnut, Juniper and Sansom Sts.
Seats on sale at John Wanamaker's Book Department.
NEW YORK CITY— Sunday Evening, March 28th.
Carnegie Hall, 53rd and 7th Ave. Seats on sale at Box
Office one week in advance.
CHICAGO, ILL.— Sunday Afternoon at Three o'Clock,
April 4th. Studebaker Theatre. Seats at Box Office.
DENVER, COL.— Tuesday Evening, April 6th. Woman's
Club Hall, Glenam Street. Seats on sale at Business
Office of "The Denver Post."
SAN FRANCISCO, CAL.— Sunday Afternoon, at Three
o'Clock, April 11th. Van Ness Theatre, Van Ness Ave.
Seats on sale at Box Office one week in advance.
On these Joyous Occasions named above, the Price of Reserved
Seats will be just Fifty Cents, and no more. The best seats
will be sold to those Wise Children of Light who first apply
9,0 5 9- Word Business Book Free
IMPLY send us a postal and ask for
our free illustrated 9,059-word Busi-
ness Booklet which tells how priceless
Business Experience, squeezed from
the lives of 112 big, broad, brainy business
men may be made yours — yours to boost your
salary, to increase your profits. This free Book-
let deals with — How to manage a business —
How to sell goods — How to get money by
mail — How to buy at rock-bottom — How to
collect money — How to stop cost leaks — How
to train and handle men — How to get and
hold a position — How to advertise a business —
How to devise office methods. Q, Sending for
this free booklet binds you to nothing, involves
you in no obligation, yet it may be the means
of starting you on a broader career. Surely
you will not deny yourself this privilege, when
it involves only the risk of a postal — a penny!
Simply say "Send on your 9,059-word Booklet."
Send to SYSTEM, Dept. 170, 151-153 Wabash Ave., Chicago
First Bound Volume of THE FRA
The first six FRAS including cover Por-
traits, Text and Advertisements, bound in
heavy boards, leather back, with title in
Gold. A very limited number $3.00 each
Cover Portraits by Gaspard, first six numbers:
Joe Jefferson Walt Whitman Emerson
Victor Hugo Franklin Ellen Terry
THE ROYCROFTERS, East Aurora, New York
^mHOREAU, long since dead and gone,
tl In name and fame still lrveth on.
^■J' 'T was he, when at the evening meal
Asked for which dish he seemed to feel
A preference, in drawling answer said,
Though many viands there were spread —
Long years a query's pestered me;
'T is this : would Henry David Thoreau, he
If asked which pretty Concord miss
Of his acquaintance he would kiss,
Have drawled in answer as before,
In Emersonian days of yore,
— Leonard Nichols
HE Roycrofters do not run a Job
Printing Garage. However, they are
willing to lend their skill, time and
talent for the benefit of the Faithful
who desire printed publicity in precise propor-
tions. So if your dues are paid and you are
fletcherizing and practicing deep breathing,
thinking well of everybody (or fairly so) why
just send along your printing orders, and we
will take care of them. We produce both Art
and Artists, and what is better we reproduce
life. We can supply you phosphorus and origin-
al designs for Folders, Letter-heads, Addresses,
Memorials, Circulars and Booklets. We print
anything that is not kiboshed by Comstock.
We fly the gonfanon of Health and Success,
and never does our work border upon the
gonpeterxyx. As before intimated, if you
want fine printing done de luxe, come and
nestle under our Paisley.
East Aurora, Erie County, New York
HALF PRICE OFFER
WORKS OF THOMAS W. LAWSON
one of the millions
who have read with pounding heart and
bated breath every word of Mr. LawBon's
that lias api>eared In print? And since the
appearance of Mr. Lawson's last magazine
article have regretted one thousand times
the absence of Mr. Lawson's monumental
works in permanent form from your book
shelves ? j
' 'THE FUTURE OF OUR COUNTRY"
the first of a new series by Mr. Lawson,
appears In the December number <»f the
Nkw England Magazine. The subject is
the broadest Mr. t,awson has undertaken
to write upon. And in the first article, Mr.
Lawson makes it plain that he is still the
seer and the prophet.
"FRENZIED FINANCE." Wehave secured
a few copies of the voluineeuntalnlng Mr.
I^awson's " Frenzied Fbianee," the first
thirty-two chapters, published by the Kldg-
way Co. at $1.60.
"FRIDAY THE THIRTEENTH." We a&VC
also secured a few copies of Mr. Lawson's
"Friday the Thirteenth," as it appeared in
" Kverybody's," published by Doubleday,
Page it Co., at fl.GO.
New England's M um/imi- Beautiful
With one year's subscription to the New England Magazine to begin with the
December number and include "The Future of Our Country," complete. If order Is
accompanied by check for $3.00 and the coupon below, we will send you by mall,
prepaid, without additional charge, both "Frenzied Finance" and "Friday the
Thirteenth** In original attractive bindings. J We regret that we can till orders only
as long as the volumes last, t We regret also that the large demand for the December
number makes it necessary for us to announce that we can no longer supply orders
for single December copies, but must reserve the few on hand for yearly subscribers.
NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE CO. Old South Building, Boston, Mass.
ItKitTKAND L. Chapman, President -
MAIL THIS COUPON TO-DAY
NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE, Old South Building, Boston, Mass.
fientlemen— ! wish to take advantage of yonr half price offer. Enclosed herewith
$s.00 [three dollars] for which please send me the New England Magazine for one
year, containing "The Future of Our Country/' by Thomas W. Lawson, and in addi-
tion, prepaid, and without extra charge, ^'Frenzied Finance" and "Friday the
Thirteenth" in attractive, original bindings.
THE ONLY INVEST;
MENTS THAT ARE
W H I T M A N
T IS A WISE
INESS; AND IT IS
A WISER MAN
ATTENDS TO IT